1.0 A brief Introduction to the three works of Ruhi al

1 A brief Introduction to the three works of Ruhi al-Khalidi, translated by Tarif Khalidi Ruhi al-Khalidi (1864-1913) was a prominent figure of the Arab Nahda, or Awakening, of the Nineteenth century. Born in Jerusalem, he first received a traditional Islamic education followed by more secular schooling in Lebanon and Istanbul, and finally in Paris. A prolific author on a very wide range of subjects, historian of politics, natural science and literature, linguist, ethnographer, and diplomat, he ended his life as vice-chairman of the Ottoman Parliament and deputy for Jerusalem. Though fully aware of the nationalisms of his day, Ruhi remained a loyal Ottomanist to the end of his days. A full account of his life will be found in the forthcoming publication of his Collected Works Edited by Dr. Mariam el-Aly to be published by the Khalidi Library and the Institute for Palestine Studies in late 2020. ********** Two of his works are here translated in full: (1) The Ottoman Revolution and the Young Turks (Arabic Al-Inqilab al-`Uthmani wa Turkiya al-Fatat. Cairo: Maktabat al-Manar, 1908) and (2) Introduction to the Eastern Question (Arabic Al-Madkhal ila al-Mas’ala al-Sharqiyya. Jerusalem: Matba`at Dar al-Aytam, n.d. [1898]). The third, translated here in greater part, is his famous History of the Science of Literature among Europeans and Arabs, and Victor Hugo (Arabic Tarikh `Il al-Adab `ind al-Ifranj wa’l `Arab wa Victor Hugo. Cairo: Matba`at al-Hilal, 1912) but see below for the edition used here. Each work is briefly described below. *********** (1) Ruhi’s Ottoman Revolution was written in the same year as the events it describes and is one of the very earliest accounts of the 1908 revolution in any language. Following some theoretical and historical reflections, Ruhi proceeds to narrate the origins and evolution of the ideas and programs of reform which eventually erupted in what he called the “volcano” of revolution. Ruhi’s account is intimate and uniformly sympathetic, and draws upon both his personal knowledge of many of the principal actors involved as well as the experiences of his uncle and mentor, Yusuf Dia Pasha. This gives his account a unique value. N.B. All footnotes are my own except for footnotes 18, 21, 22, 31 and 37 which are Ruhi’s. All terms, dates, etc in square brackets are my additions. Curly brackets { } enclose quotations from the Qur’an.